Lesson 24 of 23
In Progress

Jones v. Mississippi Key Vocabulary

[et_pb_section fb_built=”1″ _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default”][et_pb_row module_class=”flip-box row” _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default”][et_pb_column type=”4_4″ _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default”][et_pb_text _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default”][/et_pb_text][/et_pb_column][/et_pb_row][et_pb_row _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default”][et_pb_column type=”4_4″ _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default”][et_pb_text _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default”]

Important Vocabulary

Below is a list of 13 words that are helpful to understanding Part I of Jones v. Mississippi.

Of course, there are other important words in the case but these will be particularly helpful.

You might already be familiar with the words and phrases, so feel free to skip any vocabulary you are confident that you already know well. 

For each word you will find (i) a short definition, and (ii) a link to a more extensive definition with examples, and where you can hear the word being pronounced.

After reviewing the list, please proceed to the exercises to help you master the vocabulary.

 

[/et_pb_text][/et_pb_column][/et_pb_row][et_pb_row column_structure=”1_3,1_3,1_3″ _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default”][et_pb_column type=”1_3″ _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default”][et_pb_blurb title=”Cruel and Unusual Punishment” use_icon=”on” font_icon=”%%38%%” icon_placement=”left” _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default” link_option_url=”#cruel”][/et_pb_blurb][/et_pb_column][et_pb_column type=”1_3″ _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default”][et_pb_blurb title=”Unconstitutional” use_icon=”on” font_icon=”%%38%%” icon_placement=”left” _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default” link_option_url=”#unconstitutional”][/et_pb_blurb][/et_pb_column][et_pb_column type=”1_3″ _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default”][et_pb_blurb title=”Homicide” use_icon=”on” font_icon=”%%38%%” icon_placement=”left” _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default” link_option_url=”#homicide”][/et_pb_blurb][/et_pb_column][/et_pb_row][et_pb_row column_structure=”1_3,1_3,1_3″ _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default”][et_pb_column type=”1_3″ _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default”][et_pb_blurb title=”Sentenced” use_icon=”on” font_icon=”%%38%%” icon_placement=”left” _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default” link_option_url=”#sentenced”][/et_pb_blurb][/et_pb_column][et_pb_column type=”1_3″ _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default”][et_pb_blurb title=”Parole” use_icon=”on” font_icon=”%%38%%” icon_placement=”left” _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default” link_option_url=”#parole”][/et_pb_blurb][/et_pb_column][et_pb_column type=”1_3″ _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default”][et_pb_blurb title=”Petitioner” use_icon=”on” font_icon=”%%38%%” icon_placement=”left” _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default” link_option_url=”#petitioner”][/et_pb_blurb][/et_pb_column][/et_pb_row][et_pb_row column_structure=”1_3,1_3,1_3″ _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default”][et_pb_column type=”1_3″ _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default”][et_pb_blurb title=”Relief” use_icon=”on” font_icon=”%%38%%” icon_placement=”left” _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default” link_option_url=”#relief”][/et_pb_blurb][/et_pb_column][et_pb_column type=”1_3″ _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default”][et_pb_blurb title=”Hearing” use_icon=”on” font_icon=”%%38%%” icon_placement=”left” _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default” link_option_url=”#hearing”][/et_pb_blurb][/et_pb_column][et_pb_column type=”1_3″ _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default”][et_pb_blurb title=”Motion” use_icon=”on” font_icon=”%%38%%” icon_placement=”left” _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default” link_option_url=”#motion”][/et_pb_blurb][/et_pb_column][/et_pb_row][et_pb_row column_structure=”1_3,1_3,1_3″ _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default”][et_pb_column type=”1_3″ _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default”][et_pb_blurb title=”Express” use_icon=”on” font_icon=”%%38%%” icon_placement=”left” _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default” link_option_url=”#express”][/et_pb_blurb][et_pb_blurb title=”Discretionary” use_icon=”on” font_icon=”%%38%%” icon_placement=”left” _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default” link_option_url=”#discretionary”][/et_pb_blurb][/et_pb_column][et_pb_column type=”1_3″ _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default”][et_pb_blurb title=”Certiorari” use_icon=”on” font_icon=”%%38%%” icon_placement=”left” _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default” link_option_url=”#cert”][/et_pb_blurb][/et_pb_column][et_pb_column type=”1_3″ _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default”][et_pb_blurb title=”Mandatory” use_icon=”on” font_icon=”%%38%%” icon_placement=”left” _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default” link_option_url=”#mandatory”][/et_pb_blurb][/et_pb_column][/et_pb_row][et_pb_row _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default”][et_pb_column type=”4_4″ _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default”][et_pb_divider _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default”][/et_pb_divider][/et_pb_column][/et_pb_row][et_pb_row column_structure=”2_5,3_5″ _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default” max_height=”397px” overflow-x=”hidden” overflow-y=”hidden” custom_padding=”19px|||||” hover_transition_duration=”0ms” max_height__hover_enabled=”on|hover” max_height__hover=”100%”][et_pb_column type=”2_5″ _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default”][et_pb_text module_id=”cruel” _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default” header_2_font=”Indie Flower||||||||” header_2_text_align=”center” header_2_text_color=”#0C71C3″ header_2_font_size=”39px” background_color=”#edd900″ custom_padding=”150px|20px|150px|20px|true|true” border_width_top=”20px” border_color_top=”#e5b300″]

Cruel and Unusual Punishment

[/et_pb_text][et_pb_divider color=”#e58500″ divider_style=”dashed” divider_weight=”5px” _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default” transform_rotate=”0deg|0deg|270deg” z_index=”-99″ height=”0px” custom_margin=”150px||||false|false”][/et_pb_divider][et_pb_text _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default” text_font=”Open Sans||||||||” text_text_color=”#370eed” text_font_size=”100px” text_line_height=”1em” text_orientation=”center” custom_margin=”-50px||||false|false”]

[/et_pb_text][/et_pb_column][et_pb_column type=”3_5″ _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default”][et_pb_text _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default” header_3_font=”Indie Flower||||||||” header_3_text_color=”#120eef” header_3_font_size=”30px” custom_margin=”400px||||false|false”]

Noun 

A phrase that comes from the “Cruel and Unusual Punishments Clause” in the 8th Amendment in the U.S. Constitution.

[/et_pb_text][et_pb_text _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default” text_font=”Open Sans||||||||” text_font_size=”13px” text_line_height=”2em” width=”77%” custom_margin=”10px||15px||false|false”]

It prohibits the U.S. government from using punishments that are inhumane or that violate basic human dignity, including torture, enslavement, execution of people with mental health issues, handcuffing a prisoner to a horizontal bar in the hot sun for several hours, etc

[/et_pb_text][et_pb_button button_url=”https://uslawessentials.com/glossary/cruel-and-unusual-punishments-clause/” url_new_window=”on” button_text=”Learn More” _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default” custom_button=”on” button_text_color=”#0C71C3″ button_bg_color=”#EDF000″ button_border_width=”0px” button_font=”Abhaya Libre||||||||” custom_padding=”20px|60px|20px|60px|true|true”][/et_pb_button][/et_pb_column][/et_pb_row][et_pb_row column_structure=”2_5,3_5″ _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default” max_height=”397px” overflow-x=”hidden” overflow-y=”hidden” hover_transition_duration=”0ms” max_height__hover_enabled=”on|hover” max_height__hover=”100%”][et_pb_column type=”2_5″ _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default”][et_pb_text module_id=”unconstitutional” _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default” header_2_font=”Indie Flower||||||||” header_2_text_align=”center” header_2_text_color=”#0C71C3″ header_2_font_size=”39px” background_color=”#0eead8″ custom_padding=”150px|20px|150px|20px|true|true” border_width_top=”20px” border_color_top=”#0ec7f9″]

Unconstitutional

[/et_pb_text][et_pb_divider color=”#0edeed” divider_style=”dashed” divider_weight=”5px” _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default” transform_rotate=”0deg|0deg|270deg” z_index=”-99″ height=”0px” custom_margin=”150px||2px||false|false”][/et_pb_divider][et_pb_text _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default” text_font=”Open Sans||||||||” text_text_color=”#370eed” text_font_size=”100px” text_line_height=”1em” text_orientation=”center” custom_margin=”-50px||||false|false”]

[/et_pb_text][/et_pb_column][et_pb_column type=”3_5″ _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default”][et_pb_text _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default” header_3_font=”Indie Flower||||||||” header_3_text_color=”#120eef” header_3_font_size=”30px” custom_margin=”400px||||false|false”]

Adjective

In violation of the requirements of the Constitution.

[/et_pb_text][et_pb_text _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default” text_font=”Open Sans||||||||” text_font_size=”13px” text_line_height=”2em” width=”77%” custom_margin=”10px||15px||false|false”]

Courts in the United States have the power to declare laws or government activity as unconstitutional, meaning that the law or activity is invalid.

[/et_pb_text][et_pb_button button_url=”https://uslawessentials.com/glossary/unconstitutional/” url_new_window=”on” button_text=”Learn More” _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default” custom_button=”on” button_text_color=”#0C71C3″ button_bg_color=”#0ef7f3″ button_border_width=”0px” button_font=”Abhaya Libre||||||||” custom_padding=”20px|60px|20px|60px|true|true”][/et_pb_button][/et_pb_column][/et_pb_row][et_pb_row column_structure=”2_5,3_5″ _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default” max_height=”397px” overflow-x=”hidden” overflow-y=”hidden” hover_transition_duration=”0ms” max_height__hover_enabled=”on|hover” max_height__hover=”100%”][et_pb_column type=”2_5″ _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default”][et_pb_text module_id=”homicide” _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default” header_2_font=”Indie Flower||||||||” header_2_text_align=”center” header_2_text_color=”#0C71C3″ header_2_font_size=”39px” background_color=”#7CDA24″ max_height=”397px” custom_padding=”150px|20px|150px|20px|true|true” border_width_top=”20px” border_color_top=”#2af77c”]

Homicide

[/et_pb_text][et_pb_divider color=”#28ed38″ divider_style=”dashed” divider_weight=”5px” _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default” transform_rotate=”0deg|0deg|270deg” z_index=”-99″ height=”0px” custom_margin=”150px||||false|false”][/et_pb_divider][et_pb_text _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default” text_font=”Open Sans||||||||” text_text_color=”#370eed” text_font_size=”100px” text_line_height=”1em” text_orientation=”center” custom_margin=”-50px||||false|false”]

[/et_pb_text][/et_pb_column][et_pb_column type=”3_5″ _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default”][et_pb_text _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default” header_3_font=”Indie Flower||||||||” header_3_text_color=”#120eef” header_3_font_size=”30px” custom_margin=”400px||||false|false”]

Noun

The killing of a human being.  

[/et_pb_text][et_pb_text _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default” text_font=”Open Sans||||||||” text_font_size=”13px” text_line_height=”2em” width=”77%” custom_margin=”10px||15px||false|false”]

Homicide means the killing of a human being, although it is not always a crime. In the United States, the most serious type of homicide is called murder. 

[/et_pb_text][et_pb_button button_url=”https://uslawessentials.com/glossary/homicide/” url_new_window=”on” button_text=”Learn More” _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default” custom_button=”on” button_text_color=”#0C71C3″ button_bg_color=”#7CDA24″ button_border_width=”0px” button_border_color=”#7CDA24″ button_font=”Abhaya Libre||||||||” custom_padding=”20px|60px|20px|60px|true|true”][/et_pb_button][/et_pb_column][/et_pb_row][et_pb_row column_structure=”2_5,3_5″ _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default” max_height=”397px” overflow-x=”hidden” overflow-y=”hidden” hover_transition_duration=”0ms” max_height__hover_enabled=”on|hover” max_height__hover=”100%”][et_pb_column type=”2_5″ _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default”][et_pb_text module_id=”sentenced” _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default” header_2_font=”Indie Flower||||||||” header_2_text_align=”center” header_2_text_color=”#0C71C3″ header_2_font_size=”39px” background_color=”#efeb00″ max_height=”397px” custom_padding=”150px|20px|150px|20px|true|true” border_color_all=”#0C71C3″ border_width_top=”20px” border_color_top=”#d6d200″]

Sentenced

[/et_pb_text][et_pb_divider color=”#efd700″ divider_style=”dashed” divider_weight=”5px” _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default” transform_rotate=”0deg|0deg|270deg” z_index=”-99″ height=”0px” custom_margin=”150px||||false|false”][/et_pb_divider][et_pb_text _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default” text_font=”Open Sans||||||||” text_text_color=”#370eed” text_font_size=”100px” text_line_height=”1em” text_orientation=”center” custom_margin=”-50px||||false|false”]

[/et_pb_text][/et_pb_column][et_pb_column type=”3_5″ _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default”][et_pb_text _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default” header_3_font=”Indie Flower||||||||” header_3_text_color=”#120eef” header_3_font_size=”30px” custom_margin=”400px||||false|false”]

Verb (past participle)

To be given a penalty as a consequence for committing a crime.

[/et_pb_text][et_pb_text _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default” text_font=”Open Sans||||||||” text_font_size=”13px” text_line_height=”2em” width=”77%” custom_margin=”10px||15px||false|false”]

Defendants who are convicted of a crime are sentenced by either a judge or a jury. For example, a person may be sentenced to prison for a period of time.

[/et_pb_text][et_pb_button button_url=”https://uslawessentials.com/glossary/setenced/” url_new_window=”on” button_text=”Learn More” _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default” custom_button=”on” button_text_color=”#0C71C3″ button_bg_color=”#efe300″ button_border_width=”0px” button_border_color=”#7CDA24″ button_font=”Abhaya Libre||||||||” custom_padding=”20px|60px|20px|60px|true|true”][/et_pb_button][/et_pb_column][/et_pb_row][et_pb_row column_structure=”2_5,3_5″ _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default” max_height=”397px” overflow-x=”hidden” overflow-y=”hidden” hover_transition_duration=”0ms” max_height__hover_enabled=”on|hover” max_height__hover=”100%”][et_pb_column type=”2_5″ _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default”][et_pb_text module_id=”parole” _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default” header_2_font=”Indie Flower||||||||” header_2_text_align=”center” header_2_text_color=”#0C71C3″ header_2_font_size=”39px” background_color=”#0dd4e2″ max_height=”397px” custom_padding=”150px|20px|150px|20px|true|true” border_color_all=”#0C71C3″ border_width_top=”20px”]

Parole

[/et_pb_text][et_pb_divider color=”#0e99ea” divider_style=”dashed” divider_weight=”5px” _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default” transform_rotate=”0deg|0deg|270deg” z_index=”-99″ height=”0px” custom_margin=”150px||||false|false”][/et_pb_divider][et_pb_text _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default” text_font=”Open Sans||||||||” text_text_color=”#370eed” text_font_size=”100px” text_line_height=”1em” text_orientation=”center” custom_margin=”-50px||||false|false”]

[/et_pb_text][/et_pb_column][et_pb_column type=”3_5″ _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default”][et_pb_text _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default” header_3_font=”Indie Flower||||||||” header_3_text_color=”#120eef” header_3_font_size=”30px” custom_margin=”400px||||false|false”]

Noun

The early release of a prisoner, usually with conditions, and often as a reward for good behavior by the prisoner.

[/et_pb_text][et_pb_text _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default” text_font=”Open Sans||||||||” text_font_size=”13px” text_line_height=”2em” width=”77%” custom_margin=”10px||15px||false|false”]

Often in the United States a prisoner will be eligible for parole (early release) from prison after completing a certain percentage of his sentence.

[/et_pb_text][et_pb_button button_url=”https://uslawessentials.com/glossary/parole/” url_new_window=”on” button_text=”Learn More” _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default” custom_button=”on” button_text_color=”#0C71C3″ button_bg_color=”#0ec6ef” button_border_width=”0px” button_border_color=”#7CDA24″ button_font=”Abhaya Libre||||||||” custom_padding=”20px|60px|20px|60px|true|true”][/et_pb_button][/et_pb_column][/et_pb_row][et_pb_row column_structure=”2_5,3_5″ _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default” max_height=”397px” overflow-x=”hidden” overflow-y=”hidden” hover_transition_duration=”0ms” max_height__hover_enabled=”on|hover” max_height__hover=”100%”][et_pb_column type=”2_5″ _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default”][et_pb_text module_id=”petitioner” _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default” header_2_font=”Indie Flower||||||||” header_2_text_align=”center” header_2_text_color=”#0C71C3″ header_2_font_size=”39px” background_color=”#abed28″ max_height=”397px” custom_padding=”150px|20px|150px|20px|true|true” border_color_all=”#0C71C3″ border_width_top=”20px” border_color_top=”#7CDA24″]

Petitioner

[/et_pb_text][et_pb_divider color=”#a1ed28″ divider_style=”dashed” divider_weight=”5px” _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default” transform_rotate=”0deg|0deg|270deg” z_index=”-99″ height=”0px” custom_margin=”150px||||false|false”][/et_pb_divider][et_pb_text _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default” text_font=”Open Sans||||||||” text_text_color=”#370eed” text_font_size=”100px” text_line_height=”1em” text_orientation=”center” custom_margin=”-50px||||false|false”]

[/et_pb_text][/et_pb_column][et_pb_column type=”3_5″ _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default”][et_pb_text _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default” header_3_font=”Indie Flower||||||||” header_3_text_color=”#120eef” header_3_font_size=”30px” custom_margin=”400px||||false|false”]

Noun

Appellant, or anyone who applies to a court for relief

[/et_pb_text][et_pb_text _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default” text_font=”Open Sans||||||||” text_font_size=”13px” text_line_height=”2em” width=”77%” custom_margin=”10px||15px||false|false”]

Sometimes appellants are referred to as petitioners. A petitioner may also be someone who commences an action seeking help from a court

[/et_pb_text][et_pb_button button_url=”https://uslawessentials.com/glossary/petitioner/” url_new_window=”on” button_text=”Learn More” _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default” custom_button=”on” button_text_color=”#0C71C3″ button_bg_color=”#b7e827″ button_border_width=”0px” button_border_color=”#7CDA24″ button_font=”Abhaya Libre||||||||” custom_padding=”20px|60px|20px|60px|true|true”][/et_pb_button][/et_pb_column][/et_pb_row][et_pb_row column_structure=”2_5,3_5″ _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default” max_height=”397px” overflow-x=”hidden” overflow-y=”hidden” hover_transition_duration=”0ms” max_height__hover_enabled=”on|hover” max_height__hover=”100%”][et_pb_column type=”2_5″ _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default”][et_pb_text module_id=”relief” _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default” header_2_font=”Indie Flower||||||||” header_2_text_align=”center” header_2_text_color=”#0C71C3″ header_2_font_size=”39px” background_color=”#eddd00″ max_height=”397px” custom_padding=”150px|20px|150px|20px|true|true” border_color_all=”#0C71C3″ border_width_top=”20px” border_color_top=”#EDF000″]

Relief

[/et_pb_text][et_pb_divider color=”#f2ea00″ divider_style=”dashed” divider_weight=”5px” _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default” transform_rotate=”0deg|0deg|270deg” z_index=”-99″ height=”0px” custom_margin=”150px||||false|false”][/et_pb_divider][et_pb_text _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default” text_font=”Open Sans||||||||” text_text_color=”#370eed” text_font_size=”100px” text_line_height=”1em” text_orientation=”center” custom_margin=”-50px||||false|false”]

[/et_pb_text][/et_pb_column][et_pb_column type=”3_5″ _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default”][et_pb_text _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default” header_3_font=”Indie Flower||||||||” header_3_text_color=”#120eef” header_3_font_size=”30px” custom_margin=”400px||||false|false”]

Noun

The benefit given to or won by a party by the court in connection with a legal action

[/et_pb_text][et_pb_text _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default” text_font=”Open Sans||||||||” text_font_size=”13px” text_line_height=”2em” width=”77%” custom_margin=”10px||15px||false|false”]

Relief can be in the form of a money judgment or equitable relief, where the court orders a party to do something or refrain from doing something.

[/et_pb_text][et_pb_button button_url=”https://uslawessentials.com/glossary/relief/” url_new_window=”on” button_text=”Learn More” _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default” custom_button=”on” button_text_color=”#0C71C3″ button_bg_color=”#e2ea00″ button_border_width=”0px” button_border_color=”#7CDA24″ button_font=”Abhaya Libre||||||||” custom_padding=”20px|60px|20px|60px|true|true”][/et_pb_button][/et_pb_column][/et_pb_row][et_pb_row column_structure=”2_5,3_5″ _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default” max_height=”397px” overflow-x=”hidden” overflow-y=”hidden” hover_transition_duration=”0ms” max_height__hover_enabled=”on|hover” max_height__hover=”100%”][et_pb_column type=”2_5″ _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default”][et_pb_text module_id=”hearing” _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default” header_2_font=”Indie Flower||||||||” header_2_text_align=”center” header_2_text_color=”#0C71C3″ header_2_font_size=”39px” background_color=”#0ebeef” max_height=”397px” custom_padding=”150px|20px|150px|20px|true|true” border_color_all=”#0C71C3″ border_width_top=”20px”]

Hearing

[/et_pb_text][et_pb_divider color=”#f2ea00″ divider_style=”dashed” divider_weight=”5px” _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default” transform_rotate=”0deg|0deg|270deg” z_index=”-99″ height=”0px” custom_margin=”150px||||false|false”][/et_pb_divider][et_pb_text _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default” text_font=”Open Sans||||||||” text_text_color=”#370eed” text_font_size=”100px” text_line_height=”1em” text_orientation=”center” custom_margin=”-50px||||false|false”]

[/et_pb_text][/et_pb_column][et_pb_column type=”3_5″ _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default”][et_pb_text _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default” header_3_font=”Indie Flower||||||||” header_3_text_color=”#120eef” header_3_font_size=”30px” custom_margin=”400px||||false|false”]

Noun

A proceeding before a court to address a legal question

[/et_pb_text][et_pb_text _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default” text_font=”Open Sans||||||||” text_font_size=”13px” text_line_height=”2em” width=”77%” custom_margin=”10px||15px||false|false”]

Courts will often hold hearings before ruling on motions and government agencies will often hold hearings on particular issues. A hearing is usually shorter and less formal or complex than a trial. 

[/et_pb_text][et_pb_button button_url=”https://uslawessentials.com/glossary/hearing/” url_new_window=”on” button_text=”Learn More” _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default” custom_button=”on” button_text_color=”#0C71C3″ button_bg_color=”#0ee4ef” button_border_width=”0px” button_border_color=”#7CDA24″ button_font=”Abhaya Libre||||||||” custom_padding=”20px|60px|20px|60px|true|true”][/et_pb_button][/et_pb_column][/et_pb_row][et_pb_row column_structure=”2_5,3_5″ _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default” max_height=”397px” overflow-x=”hidden” overflow-y=”hidden” hover_transition_duration=”0ms” max_height__hover_enabled=”on|hover” max_height__hover=”100%”][et_pb_column type=”2_5″ _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default”][et_pb_text module_id=”motion” _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default” header_2_font=”Indie Flower||||||||” header_2_text_align=”center” header_2_text_color=”#0C71C3″ header_2_font_size=”39px” background_color=”#aaef28″ max_height=”397px” custom_padding=”150px|20px|150px|20px|true|true” border_color_all=”#0C71C3″ border_width_top=”20px” border_color_top=”#7CDA24″]

Motion

[/et_pb_text][et_pb_divider color=”#7CDA24″ divider_style=”dashed” divider_weight=”5px” _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default” transform_rotate=”0deg|0deg|270deg” z_index=”-99″ height=”0px” custom_margin=”150px||||false|false”][/et_pb_divider][et_pb_text _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default” text_font=”Open Sans||||||||” text_text_color=”#370eed” text_font_size=”100px” text_line_height=”1em” text_orientation=”center” custom_margin=”-50px||||false|false”]

[/et_pb_text][/et_pb_column][et_pb_column type=”3_5″ _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default”][et_pb_text _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default” header_3_font=”Indie Flower||||||||” header_3_text_color=”#120eef” header_3_font_size=”30px” custom_margin=”400px||||false|false”]

Noun

A request by a party to a judge for some type of decision in connection with a case

[/et_pb_text][et_pb_text _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default” text_font=”Open Sans||||||||” text_font_size=”13px” text_line_height=”2em” width=”77%” custom_margin=”10px||15px||false|false”]

A motion asks a judge to make a decision concerning an application from one of the parties to a case for a ruling on a certain issue. Motions can involve a wide-range of matters.

[/et_pb_text][et_pb_button button_url=”https://uslawessentials.com/glossary/motion/” url_new_window=”on” button_text=”Learn More” _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default” custom_button=”on” button_text_color=”#0C71C3″ button_bg_color=”#b2f229″ button_border_width=”0px” button_border_color=”#7CDA24″ button_font=”Abhaya Libre||||||||” custom_padding=”20px|60px|20px|60px|true|true”][/et_pb_button][/et_pb_column][/et_pb_row][et_pb_row column_structure=”2_5,3_5″ _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default” max_height=”397px” overflow-x=”hidden” overflow-y=”hidden” hover_transition_duration=”0ms” max_height__hover_enabled=”on|hover” max_height__hover=”100%”][et_pb_column type=”2_5″ _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default”][et_pb_text module_id=”express” _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default” header_2_font=”Indie Flower||||||||” header_2_text_align=”center” header_2_text_color=”#0C71C3″ header_2_font_size=”39px” background_color=”#e5e100″ max_height=”397px” custom_padding=”150px|20px|150px|20px|true|true” border_color_all=”#0C71C3″ border_width_top=”20px” border_color_top=”#e5ca00″]

Express

[/et_pb_text][et_pb_divider color=”#EDF000″ divider_style=”dashed” divider_weight=”5px” _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default” transform_rotate=”0deg|0deg|270deg” z_index=”-99″ height=”0px” custom_margin=”150px||||false|false”][/et_pb_divider][et_pb_text _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default” text_font=”Open Sans||||||||” text_text_color=”#370eed” text_font_size=”100px” text_line_height=”1em” text_orientation=”center” custom_margin=”-50px||||false|false”]

[/et_pb_text][/et_pb_column][et_pb_column type=”3_5″ _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default”][et_pb_text _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default” header_3_font=”Indie Flower||||||||” header_3_text_color=”#120eef” header_3_font_size=”30px” custom_margin=”400px||||false|false”]

Adjective

Stated explicity, not implied.

[/et_pb_text][et_pb_text _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default” text_font=”Open Sans||||||||” text_font_size=”13px” text_line_height=”2em” width=”77%” custom_margin=”10px||15px||false|false”]

Courts distinguish between legal principles and provisions that are explicitly stated, either orally or in writing, and legal principles or provisions that may be implied

[/et_pb_text][et_pb_button button_url=”https://uslawessentials.com/glossary/express/” url_new_window=”on” button_text=”Learn More” _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default” custom_button=”on” button_text_color=”#0C71C3″ button_bg_color=”#efdf00″ button_border_width=”0px” button_border_color=”#7CDA24″ button_font=”Abhaya Libre||||||||” custom_padding=”20px|60px|20px|60px|true|true”][/et_pb_button][/et_pb_column][/et_pb_row][et_pb_row column_structure=”2_5,3_5″ _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default” max_height=”397px” overflow-x=”hidden” overflow-y=”hidden” hover_transition_duration=”0ms” max_height__hover_enabled=”on|hover” max_height__hover=”100%”][et_pb_column type=”2_5″ _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default”][et_pb_text module_id=”cert” _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default” header_2_font=”Indie Flower||||||||” header_2_text_align=”center” header_2_text_color=”#0C71C3″ header_2_font_size=”39px” background_color=”#0ec9ea” max_height=”397px” custom_padding=”150px|20px|150px|20px|true|true” border_color_all=”#0C71C3″ border_width_top=”20px” border_color_top=”#0071e2″]

Certiorari

[/et_pb_text][et_pb_divider color=”#EDF000″ divider_style=”dashed” divider_weight=”5px” _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default” transform_rotate=”0deg|0deg|270deg” z_index=”-99″ height=”0px” custom_margin=”150px||||false|false”][/et_pb_divider][et_pb_text _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default” text_font=”Open Sans||||||||” text_text_color=”#370eed” text_font_size=”100px” text_line_height=”1em” text_orientation=”center” custom_margin=”-50px||||false|false”]

[/et_pb_text][/et_pb_column][et_pb_column type=”3_5″ _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default”][et_pb_text _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default” header_3_font=”Indie Flower||||||||” header_3_text_color=”#120eef” header_3_font_size=”30px” custom_margin=”400px||||false|false”]

Noun

When an appellate court agrees to hear an appeal from a lower court.

[/et_pb_text][et_pb_text _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default” text_font=”Open Sans||||||||” text_font_size=”13px” text_line_height=”2em” width=”77%” custom_margin=”10px||15px||false|false”]

Appellate courts are not always required to take an appeal from a lower court’s decision. If the appellate court agrees to hear an appeal, sometimes we say it granted certiorari

[/et_pb_text][et_pb_button button_url=”https://uslawessentials.com/glossary/certiorari/” url_new_window=”on” button_text=”Learn More” _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default” custom_button=”on” button_text_color=”#0C71C3″ button_bg_color=”#0db8e8″ button_border_width=”0px” button_border_color=”#7CDA24″ button_font=”Abhaya Libre||||||||” custom_padding=”20px|60px|20px|60px|true|true”][/et_pb_button][/et_pb_column][/et_pb_row][et_pb_row column_structure=”2_5,3_5″ _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default” max_height=”397px” overflow-x=”hidden” overflow-y=”hidden” hover_transition_duration=”0ms” max_height__hover_enabled=”on|hover” max_height__hover=”100%”][et_pb_column type=”2_5″ _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default”][et_pb_text module_id=”mandatory” _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default” header_2_font=”Indie Flower||||||||” header_2_text_align=”center” header_2_text_color=”#0C71C3″ header_2_font_size=”39px” background_color=”#96ea27″ max_height=”397px” custom_padding=”150px|20px|150px|20px|true|true” border_color_all=”#0C71C3″ border_width_top=”20px” border_color_top=”#7CDA24″]

Mandatory

[/et_pb_text][et_pb_divider color=”#b8ed28″ divider_style=”dashed” divider_weight=”5px” _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default” transform_rotate=”0deg|0deg|270deg” z_index=”-99″ height=”0px” custom_margin=”150px||||false|false”][/et_pb_divider][et_pb_text _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default” text_font=”Open Sans||||||||” text_text_color=”#370eed” text_font_size=”100px” text_line_height=”1em” text_orientation=”center” custom_margin=”-50px||||false|false”]

[/et_pb_text][/et_pb_column][et_pb_column type=”3_5″ _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default”][et_pb_text _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default” header_3_font=”Indie Flower||||||||” header_3_text_color=”#120eef” header_3_font_size=”30px” custom_margin=”400px||||false|false”]

Adjective

Required, not optional

[/et_pb_text][et_pb_text _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default” text_font=”Open Sans||||||||” text_font_size=”13px” text_line_height=”2em” width=”77%” custom_margin=”10px||15px||false|false”]

When studying legal English  it is useful to distinguish between  language that creates a required obligation (mandatory obligation) and language that gives parties a choice as to how to act (discretionary power)

[/et_pb_text][et_pb_button button_url=”https://uslawessentials.com/glossary/mandatory/” url_new_window=”on” button_text=”Learn More” _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default” custom_button=”on” button_text_color=”#0C71C3″ button_bg_color=”#b7ef28″ button_border_width=”0px” button_border_color=”#7CDA24″ button_font=”Abhaya Libre||||||||” custom_padding=”20px|60px|20px|60px|true|true”][/et_pb_button][/et_pb_column][/et_pb_row][et_pb_row column_structure=”2_5,3_5″ _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default” max_height=”397px” overflow-x=”hidden” overflow-y=”hidden” hover_transition_duration=”0ms” max_height__hover_enabled=”on|hover” max_height__hover=”100%”][et_pb_column type=”2_5″ _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default”][et_pb_text module_id=”discretionary” _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default” header_2_font=”Indie Flower||||||||” header_2_text_align=”center” header_2_text_color=”#0C71C3″ header_2_font_size=”39px” background_color=”#edd900″ max_height=”397px” custom_padding=”150px|20px|150px|20px|true|true” border_color_all=”#0C71C3″ border_width_top=”20px” border_color_top=”#EDF000″]

Discretionary

[/et_pb_text][et_pb_divider color=”#EDF000″ divider_style=”dashed” divider_weight=”5px” _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default” transform_rotate=”0deg|0deg|270deg” z_index=”-99″ height=”0px” custom_margin=”150px||||false|false”][/et_pb_divider][et_pb_text _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default” text_font=”Open Sans||||||||” text_text_color=”#370eed” text_font_size=”100px” text_line_height=”1em” text_orientation=”center” custom_margin=”-50px||||false|false”]

[/et_pb_text][/et_pb_column][et_pb_column type=”3_5″ _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default”][et_pb_text _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default” header_3_font=”Indie Flower||||||||” header_3_text_color=”#120eef” header_3_font_size=”30px” custom_margin=”400px||||false|false”]

Adjective

Not required, optional

[/et_pb_text][et_pb_text _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default” text_font=”Open Sans||||||||” text_font_size=”13px” text_line_height=”2em” width=”77%” custom_margin=”10px||15px||false|false”]

When a party or court is not required to act in a certain manner we can say that they have discretionary authority

[/et_pb_text][et_pb_button button_url=”https://uslawessentials.com/glossary/discretionary/” url_new_window=”on” button_text=”Learn More” _builder_version=”4.9.4″ _module_preset=”default” custom_button=”on” button_text_color=”#0C71C3″ button_bg_color=”#EDF000″ button_border_width=”0px” button_border_color=”#7CDA24″ button_font=”Abhaya Libre||||||||” custom_padding=”20px|60px|20px|60px|true|true” hover_enabled=”0″ sticky_enabled=”0″][/et_pb_button][/et_pb_column][/et_pb_row][/et_pb_section]