Lesson 22 of 21
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4.3: Practice Identifying Parts of a Case

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Goals

Practice identifying the parts of a case using language-related clues and strategies.

 

Instructions

  1. For each sentence of the Lefkowitz case, note which language-related features or clues that you think are important. You will probably see several language clues.
  2. Then decide what part of the case you think it is (e.g., Facts, Procedural History, Issue, etc.)

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As you read each sentence you can refer to the following language clues and parts of the case.

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Language Clues: 1) Present tense main verb; 2) Past tense main verb; 3) Procedural words like appeal, order, trial, motion, judgment, award, plaintiff/defendant/appellant/appellee; 4) Has a citation (or makes a direct reference to its source of authority in the words of the sentence); 5) Does not have a citation; 6) Has italicized font; 7) Tells you whether the court agreed or disagreed with the lower court; 8) Has a verb like hold, find, believe, have determined, or have decided; 9) Has the word “issue” or “whether” or “question” or other type of question word in it; 10) Uses a first-person term like “we” or “our” or “this court”; 11) Does NOT use a first-person term like “we” or “our” or “this court”; 12) Happened BEFORE the lawsuit or case was started in the court; 13) Happened AFTER the lawsuit or case was started in the court; 14) Uses reported speech; 15) Describes how a party argues, alleges, claims, contends, etc.; 16) Includes an analogy, comparison, or hypothetical situation

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Parts of the Case:

  1. Facts 2. Procedural History 3. Issue 4. Rule 5. Holding 6. Reasoning 7. Disposition

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Jump to A Sentence:

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[1] This is an appeal from an order of the Municipal Court of Minneapolis denying the motion of the defendant for amended findings of fact, or, in the alternative, for a new trial.

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  • 1. Present tense main verb
  • 3. Procedural words like appeal, order, trial, motion, judgment, award, plaintiff/defendant/appellant/appellee
  • 5. Does not have a citation
  • 11. Does NOT use a first-person term like %22we%22 or %22our%22 or %22this court.%22
  • 13. Happened AFTER the lawsuit or case was started in the court

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Procedural History

It has a present tense main verb (%22is%22). But it uses several procedural words including appeal, order, deny, motion, defendant, and trial. And it’s describing events that happened after the case was filed in court. Therefore, it’s Procedural History.

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*Procedural History

It has a present tense main verb (“is”). But it uses several procedural words including appeal, order, deny, motion, defendant, and trial. And it’s describing events that happened after the case was filed in court. Therefore, it’s Procedural History.

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[2] The order for judgment awarded the plaintiff the sum of $138.50 as damages for breach of contract.

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  • 2. Past tense main verb
  • 3. Procedural words like appeal, order, trial, motion, judgment, award, plaintiff/defendant/appellant/appellee
  • 11. Does NOT use a first-person term like %22we%22 or %22our%22 or %22this court.%22
  • 13. Happened AFTER the lawsuit or case was started in the court

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Procedural History

 

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[3] This case grows out of the alleged refusal of the defendant to sell to the plaintiff a certain fur piece which it had offered for sale in a newspaper advertisement.

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  • 1. Present tense main verb
  • 5. Does NOT have a citation
  • 11. Does NOT use a first-person term like %22we%22 or %22our%22 or %22this court.%22
  • 12. Happened BEFORE the lawsuit or case was started in the court

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Facts

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[5] On April 13, the defendant again published an advertisement in the same newspaper as follows: 

  • Saturday 9 A.M. 2 Brand New Pastel Mink 3-Skin Scarfs Selling for $89.50
  • Out they go Saturday. Each … $1.00
  • 1 Black Lapin Stole Beautiful, worth $139.50 … $1.00
  • First Come First Served

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  • 2. Past  tense main verb
  • 5. Does NOT have a citation
  • 11. Does NOT use a first-person term like “we” or “our” or “this court.”
  • 12. Happened BEFORE the lawsuit or case was started in the court
  • 14. Used reported speech

 

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Facts

Note: This sentence uses reported speech since it tells us the exact words that were used in the newspaper advertisement. However, reported speech is not necessarily significant for determining whether something is part of the Facts or not.

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[7] On both occasions, the defendant refused to sell the merchandise to the plaintiff, stating on the first occasion that by a ‘house rule’ the offer was intended for women only and sales would not be made to men, and on the second visit that plaintiff knew defendant’s house rules.

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  • 2. Past  tense main verb
  • 3. Procedural words like appeal, order, trial, motion, etc.
  • 5. Does not have a citation
  • 11.  Does NOT use a first-person term like “we” or “our” or “this court.”
  • Happened BEFORE the lawsuit or case was started in the court
  • 14. Used reported speech

 

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Facts

 These are events between the parties that took place before the lawsuit commenced.

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[8] The trial court properly disallowed plaintiff’s claim for the value of the fur coats since the value of these articles was speculative and uncertain.

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  • 2. Past  tense main verb
  • 3. Procedural words like appeal, order, trial, motion, etc.
  • 5. Does not have a citation
  • 7. Tells you whether our court agreed or disagreed with the lower court
  • 11.  Does NOT use a first-person term like “we” or “our” or “this court.”
  • 13. Happened AFTER the lawsuit or case was started in the court

 

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Procedural History

We learn how the lower court ruled on a particular issue raised by the parties. Notice there is no citation. Sometimes appellate courts will provide a citation to the lower court’s decision, sometimes they don’t. But this is also:

Holding & Reasoning because the appellate court is affirming that the trial court reached the correct decision regarding this issue.

 

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[9] The only evidence of value was the advertisement itself to the effect that the coats were ‘Worth to $100.00,’ how much less being speculative especially in view of the price for which they were offered for sale.

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  • 2. Past tense main verb
  • 3. Procedural words like appeal, order, trial, motion, etc.
  • 5. Does not have a citation
  • 7. Tells you whether our court agreed or disagreed with the lower court
  • 11. Does NOT use a first-person term like %22we%22 or %22our%22 or %22this court.%22
  • 13. Happened AFTER the lawsuit or case was started in the court
  • 14. Uses reported speech

    “]

     

     

     

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      Procedural History and Reasoning

      Procedural History: This one is a little tricky. The key phrase is %22The only evidence….%22 Evidence is something that is used in a trial. And that means that this sentence is describing something that happened AFTER the lawsuit or case was filed. This is also:

      Reasoning. Because in this context the Court is explaining why it agrees with the trial court’s decision that plaintiff failed to prove the value of the coats he wanted to buy.

      “]

       

       

       

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      [11] The defendant contends that a newspaper advertisement offering items of merchandise for sale at a named price is a ‘unilateral offer’ which may be withdrawn without notice.

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      • 1. Present tense main verb
      • 5. Does not have a citation
      • 11. Does NOT use a first-person term like %22we%22 or %22our%22 or %22this court.%22
      • 13. Happened AFTER the lawsuit or case was started in the court
      • 14. Uses reported speech
      • 15. Describes how a party argues, alleges, claims, contends, etc

      “]

       

      • 1. Present tense main verb
      • 5. Does not have a citation
      • 11.  Does NOT use a first-person term like “we” or “our” or “this court.”
      • 13. Happened AFTER the lawsuit or case was started in the court
      • 14. Uses reported speech
      • 15. Describes how a party argues, alleges, claims, contends, etc

       

      [/et_pb_cta][/et_pb_column][et_pb_column type=”1_2″ _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” global_colors_info=”{}”][et_pb_cta title=”What part of the case is this?” _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” header_font_size=”18px” body_text_align=”left” body_font_size=”14px” background_color=”#5e00ed” height=”125px” hover_transition_duration=”900ms” hover_transition_speed_curve=”ease-in-out” border_radii=”on|10px|10px|10px|10px” box_shadow_style=”preset3″ global_colors_info=”{}” height__hover_enabled=”on|hover” height__hover=”700px” background__hover_enabled=”on|hover” background_color__hover=”#9F6DEC” background_enable_color__hover=”on” content__hover_enabled=”on|hover” content__hover=”

      Reasoning

      This happened AFTER the lawsuit was filed, because the defendant can only %22contend%22 something in the complaint or arguments submitted to the court. %22Contends%22 refers to the defendant’s argument for the purposes of the court case. Now the Court will address why it rejects this argument so this is part of the reasoning or rationale of the Court.

      “]

       

      Reasoning

      This happened AFTER the lawsuit was filed, because the defendant can only “contend” something in the complaint or arguments submitted to the court.  “Contends” refers to the defendant’s argument for the purposes of the court case. Now the Court will address why it rejects this argument so this is part of the reasoning or rationale of the Court.

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      [13] Such advertisements have been construed as an invitation for an offer of sale on the terms stated, which offer, when received, may be accepted or rejected and which therefore does not become a contract of sale until accepted by the seller; and until a contract has been so made, the seller **691 may modify or revoke such prices or terms. Montgomery Ward & Co. v. Johnson, 209 Mass. 89, 95 N.E. 290; Nickel v. Theresa Farmers Co-op. Ass’n, 247 Wis. 412, 20 N.W.2d 117; Lovett v. Frederick Loeser & Co. Inc., 124 Misc. 81, 207 N.Y.S. 753; *191 Schenectady Stove Co. v. Holbrook, 101 N.Y. 45, 4 N.E. 4; Georgian Co. v. Bloom, 27 Ga.App. 468, 108 S.E. 813; Craft v. Elder & Johnson Co., 38 N.E.2d 416, 34 Ohio L.A. 603; Annotation, 157 A.L.R. 746.

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      • 1. Present tense main verb
      • 4. Has a citation (or makes a direct reference to its source of authority in the words of the sentence)
      • 8. Has a verb like hold, find, believe, have determined, or have decided.
      • 11. Does NOT use a first-person term like %22we%22 or %22our%22 or %22this court.%22
      • 12. Happened BEFORE the lawsuit or case was started in the court

      “]

       

       

      [/et_pb_cta][/et_pb_column][et_pb_column type=”1_2″ _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” global_colors_info=”{}”][et_pb_cta title=”What part of the case is this?” _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” header_font_size=”18px” body_text_align=”left” body_font_size=”16px” background_color=”#5e00ed” height=”125px” hover_transition_duration=”900ms” hover_transition_speed_curve=”ease-in-out” border_radii=”on|10px|10px|10px|10px” box_shadow_style=”preset3″ global_colors_info=”{}” height__hover_enabled=”on|hover” height__hover=”700px” background__hover_enabled=”on|hover” background_color__hover=”#9F6DEC” background_enable_color__hover=”on”]

       

      Rule or Reasoning

      Either Rule or Reasoning can be correct answers. It does describe a rule, although this is not ultimately the rule that the Court in Lefkowitz relies on. It can also be considered Reasoning since the Court is using this rule to help it decide the case.

      In the bigger picture, it doesn’t matter whether you categorize it as Rule or Reasoning. It’s more important that you understand it’s part of the court’s thinking, and that it’s not the holding for this case.

      [/et_pb_cta][/et_pb_column][/et_pb_row][et_pb_row column_structure=”1_2,1_2″ _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” global_colors_info=”{}”][et_pb_column type=”1_2″ _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” global_colors_info=”{}”][et_pb_button button_url=”#langclues” button_text=”Remind me of some language clues” button_alignment=”center” _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” button_text_size=”14px” global_colors_info=”{}”][/et_pb_button][/et_pb_column][et_pb_column type=”1_2″ _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” global_colors_info=”{}”][et_pb_button button_url=”#partcase” button_text=”Remind me of parts of the case ” button_alignment=”center” _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” button_text_size=”14px” global_colors_info=”{}”][/et_pb_button][/et_pb_column][/et_pb_row][et_pb_row _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” global_colors_info=”{}”][et_pb_column type=”4_4″ _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” global_colors_info=”{}”][et_pb_button button_url=”#Q15″ button_text=”Next sentence” button_alignment=”center” _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” global_colors_info=”{}”][/et_pb_button][/et_pb_column][/et_pb_row][/et_pb_section][et_pb_section fb_built=”1″ module_id=”Q15″ _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” background_color=”#F3F2F6″ min_height=”825px” global_colors_info=”{}”][et_pb_row _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” global_colors_info=”{}”][et_pb_column type=”4_4″ _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” global_colors_info=”{}”][et_pb_text _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” global_colors_info=”{}”]

      [15] In that case, the court discussed the legal effect of an advertisement offering for sale, as a one-day special, an electric sewing machine at a named price.

      [/et_pb_text][/et_pb_column][/et_pb_row][et_pb_row column_structure=”1_2,1_2″ _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” global_colors_info=”{}”][et_pb_column type=”1_2″ _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” global_colors_info=”{}”][et_pb_cta title=” What language clues can you identify?” _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” header_font_size=”18px” body_text_align=”left” body_font_size=”16px” background_color=”#5e00ed” height=”125px” hover_transition_duration=”900ms” hover_transition_speed_curve=”ease-in-out” border_radii=”on|10px|10px|10px|10px” box_shadow_style=”preset3″ global_colors_info=”{}” height__hover_enabled=”on|hover” height__hover=”700px” background__hover_enabled=”on|hover” background_color__hover=”#9F6DEC” background_enable_color__hover=”on” content__hover_enabled=”on|hover” content__hover=”

      • 2. Past tense main verb
      • 4. Has a citation (or makes a direct reference to its source of authority in the words of the sentence)
      • 11. Does NOT use a first-person term like %22we%22 or %22our%22 or %22this court.%22
      • 14. Uses reported speech

      “]

       

       

      [/et_pb_cta][/et_pb_column][et_pb_column type=”1_2″ _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” global_colors_info=”{}”][et_pb_cta title=”What part of the case is this?” _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” header_font_size=”18px” body_text_align=”left” body_font_size=”16px” background_color=”#5e00ed” height=”125px” hover_transition_duration=”900ms” hover_transition_speed_curve=”ease-in-out” border_radii=”on|10px|10px|10px|10px” box_shadow_style=”preset3″ global_colors_info=”{}” height__hover_enabled=”on|hover” height__hover=”700px” background__hover_enabled=”on|hover” background_color__hover=”#9F6DEC” background_enable_color__hover=”on”]

       

      Rule or Reasoning

      Again, this can be both Rule and/or Reasoning. 

      • Rule because the Court is discussing the case and principle that the Court ultimately relies on to reach its decision.
      • Reasoning because it shows the Court’s thinking process on how it reaches its holding.

      [/et_pb_cta][/et_pb_column][/et_pb_row][et_pb_row column_structure=”1_2,1_2″ _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” global_colors_info=”{}”][et_pb_column type=”1_2″ _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” global_colors_info=”{}”][et_pb_button button_url=”#langclues” button_text=”Remind me of some language clues” button_alignment=”center” _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” button_text_size=”14px” global_colors_info=”{}”][/et_pb_button][/et_pb_column][et_pb_column type=”1_2″ _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” global_colors_info=”{}”][et_pb_button button_url=”#partcase” button_text=”Remind me of parts of the case ” button_alignment=”center” _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” button_text_size=”14px” global_colors_info=”{}”][/et_pb_button][/et_pb_column][/et_pb_row][et_pb_row _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” global_colors_info=”{}”][et_pb_column type=”4_4″ _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” global_colors_info=”{}”][et_pb_button button_url=”#Q18″ button_text=”Next sentence” button_alignment=”center” _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” global_colors_info=”{}”][/et_pb_button][/et_pb_column][/et_pb_row][/et_pb_section][et_pb_section fb_built=”1″ module_id=”Q18″ _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” background_color=”#F3F2F6″ min_height=”825px” global_colors_info=”{}”][et_pb_row _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” global_colors_info=”{}”][et_pb_column type=”4_4″ _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” global_colors_info=”{}”][et_pb_text _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” custom_padding=”||1px|||” global_colors_info=”{}”]

      [18] It is true that such an offer may be withdrawn before acceptance.

      [/et_pb_text][/et_pb_column][/et_pb_row][et_pb_row column_structure=”1_2,1_2″ _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” global_colors_info=”{}”][et_pb_column type=”1_2″ _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” global_colors_info=”{}”][et_pb_cta title=” What language clues can you identify?” _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” header_font_size=”18px” body_text_align=”left” body_font_size=”16px” background_color=”#5e00ed” height=”125px” hover_transition_duration=”900ms” hover_transition_speed_curve=”ease-in-out” border_radii=”on|10px|10px|10px|10px” box_shadow_style=”preset3″ global_colors_info=”{}” height__hover_enabled=”on|hover” height__hover=”700px” background__hover_enabled=”on|hover” background_color__hover=”#9F6DEC” background_enable_color__hover=”on” content__hover_enabled=”on|hover” content__hover=”

      • 1. Present tense main verb
      • 5. Does not have a citation
      • 11. Does NOT use a first-person term like %22we%22 or %22our%22 or %22this court.%22
      • Note: Seems to be always or generally true – – not something that %22happened%22 before or after the litigation commenced.

      “]

       

       

      [/et_pb_cta][/et_pb_column][et_pb_column type=”1_2″ _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” global_colors_info=”{}”][et_pb_cta title=”What part of the case is this?” _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” header_font_size=”18px” body_text_align=”left” body_font_size=”16px” background_color=”#5e00ed” height=”125px” hover_transition_duration=”900ms” hover_transition_speed_curve=”ease-in-out” border_radii=”on|10px|10px|10px|10px” box_shadow_style=”preset3″ global_colors_info=”{}” height__hover_enabled=”on|hover” height__hover=”700px” background__hover_enabled=”on|hover” background_color__hover=”#9F6DEC” background_enable_color__hover=”on”]

       

      Rule or Reasoning

      This could be categorized as Rule or as Reasoning.

      • Rule because it is present tense and describes something that seems to be always or generally true. And it forms the basis for the rule that the Court ultimately relies on. Although at the same time, it is really leading up to the main rule that the Court relies on.
      • Reasoning because the Court is showing its logic and thinking that leads to its ultimate conclusion, i.e., the holding.

      [/et_pb_cta][/et_pb_column][/et_pb_row][et_pb_row column_structure=”1_2,1_2″ _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” global_colors_info=”{}”][et_pb_column type=”1_2″ _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” global_colors_info=”{}”][et_pb_button button_url=”#langclues” button_text=”Remind me of some language clues” button_alignment=”center” _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” button_text_size=”14px” global_colors_info=”{}”][/et_pb_button][/et_pb_column][et_pb_column type=”1_2″ _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” global_colors_info=”{}”][et_pb_button button_url=”#partcase” button_text=”Remind me of parts of the case ” button_alignment=”center” _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” button_text_size=”14px” global_colors_info=”{}”][/et_pb_button][/et_pb_column][/et_pb_row][et_pb_row _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” global_colors_info=”{}”][et_pb_column type=”4_4″ _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” global_colors_info=”{}”][et_pb_button button_url=”#Q19″ button_text=”Next sentence” button_alignment=”center” _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” global_colors_info=”{}”][/et_pb_button][/et_pb_column][/et_pb_row][/et_pb_section][et_pb_section fb_built=”1″ module_id=”Q19″ _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” background_color=”#F3F2F6″ min_height=”825px” global_colors_info=”{}”][et_pb_row _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” global_colors_info=”{}”][et_pb_column type=”4_4″ _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” global_colors_info=”{}”][et_pb_text _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” custom_padding=”||1px|||” global_colors_info=”{}”]

      [19] Since all offers are by their nature unilateral because they are necessarily made by one party or on one side in the negotiation of a contract, the distinction made in that decision between a unilateral offer and a unilateral contract is not clear.

      [/et_pb_text][/et_pb_column][/et_pb_row][et_pb_row column_structure=”1_2,1_2″ _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” global_colors_info=”{}”][et_pb_column type=”1_2″ _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” global_colors_info=”{}”][et_pb_cta title=” What language clues can you identify?” content_last_edited=”off|desktop” _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” header_font_size=”18px” body_text_align=”left” body_font_size=”16px” background_color=”#5e00ed” height=”125px” hover_transition_duration=”900ms” hover_transition_speed_curve=”ease-in-out” border_radii=”on|10px|10px|10px|10px” box_shadow_style=”preset3″ global_colors_info=”{}” height__hover_enabled=”on|hover” height__hover=”700px” background__hover_enabled=”on|hover” background_color__hover=”#9F6DEC” background_enable_color__hover=”on” content__hover_enabled=”on|hover” content__hover=”

      • 1. Present tense main verb
      • 5. Does not have a citation
      • 11. Does NOT use a first-person term like %22we%22 or %22our%22 or %22this court.%22
      • Note: Seems to be always or generally true – – not something that %22happened%22 before or after the litigation commenced.

      “]

       

       

      [/et_pb_cta][/et_pb_column][et_pb_column type=”1_2″ _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” global_colors_info=”{}”][et_pb_cta title=”What part of the case is this?” _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” header_font_size=”18px” body_text_align=”left” body_font_size=”14px” background_color=”#5e00ed” height=”125px” hover_transition_duration=”900ms” hover_transition_speed_curve=”ease-in-out” border_radii=”on|10px|10px|10px|10px” box_shadow_style=”preset3″ global_colors_info=”{}” height__hover_enabled=”on|hover” height__hover=”700px” background__hover_enabled=”on|hover” background_color__hover=”#9F6DEC” background_enable_color__hover=”on” content__hover_enabled=”on|desktop” content__hover=”

      Reasoning

      Reasoning is the correct answer, even though it looks somewhat like a Rule. It has a present tense main verb, and part of it seems to describe something that’s always or generally true. However, it also ends with a statement of the court’s evaluation, i.e., that the distinction is not clear. When the Court says what it’s thinking about a rule or idea, that’s Reasoning.

      “]

       

      Reasoning

      Reasoning is the correct answer, even though it looks somewhat like a Rule. It has a present tense main verb, and part of it seems to describe something that’s always or generally true. However, it also ends with a statement of the court’s evaluation, i.e., that the distinction is not clear. When the Court says what it’s thinking about a rule or idea, that’s Reasoning.

      [/et_pb_cta][/et_pb_column][/et_pb_row][et_pb_row column_structure=”1_2,1_2″ _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” global_colors_info=”{}”][et_pb_column type=”1_2″ _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” global_colors_info=”{}”][et_pb_button button_url=”#langclues” button_text=”Remind me of some language clues” button_alignment=”center” _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” button_text_size=”14px” global_colors_info=”{}”][/et_pb_button][/et_pb_column][et_pb_column type=”1_2″ _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” global_colors_info=”{}”][et_pb_button button_url=”#partcase” button_text=”Remind me of parts of the case ” button_alignment=”center” _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” button_text_size=”14px” global_colors_info=”{}”][/et_pb_button][/et_pb_column][/et_pb_row][et_pb_row _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” global_colors_info=”{}”][et_pb_column type=”4_4″ _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” global_colors_info=”{}”][et_pb_button button_url=”#Q20″ button_text=”Next sentence” button_alignment=”center” _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” global_colors_info=”{}”][/et_pb_button][/et_pb_column][/et_pb_row][/et_pb_section][et_pb_section fb_built=”1″ module_id=”Q13″ _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” background_color=”#F3F2F6″ min_height=”825px” global_colors_info=”{}”][et_pb_row _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” global_colors_info=”{}”][et_pb_column type=”4_4″ _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” global_colors_info=”{}”][et_pb_text _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” custom_padding=”||1px|||” global_colors_info=”{}”]

      [20] On the facts before us we are concerned with whether the advertisement constituted an offer, and, if so, whether the plaintiff’s conduct constituted an acceptance.

      [/et_pb_text][/et_pb_column][/et_pb_row][et_pb_row column_structure=”1_2,1_2″ _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” global_colors_info=”{}”][et_pb_column type=”1_2″ _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” global_colors_info=”{}”][et_pb_cta title=” What language clues can you identify?” _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” header_font_size=”18px” body_text_align=”left” body_font_size=”16px” background_color=”#5e00ed” height=”125px” hover_transition_duration=”900ms” hover_transition_speed_curve=”ease-in-out” border_radii=”on|10px|10px|10px|10px” box_shadow_style=”preset3″ global_colors_info=”{}” height__hover_enabled=”on|hover” height__hover=”700px” background__hover_enabled=”on|hover” background_color__hover=”#9F6DEC” background_enable_color__hover=”on” content__hover_enabled=”on|hover” content__hover=”

      • 1. Present tense main verb
      • 5. Does not have a citation
      • 9. Has the word %22issue%22 or %22whether%22 or %22question%22 or other type of question word in it.
      • 10. Uses a first-person term like %22we%22 or %22our%22 or %22this court.%22
      • 14. Happened AFTER the lawsuit or case was started in the court

      “]

       

       

      [/et_pb_cta][/et_pb_column][et_pb_column type=”1_2″ _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” global_colors_info=”{}”][et_pb_cta title=”What part of the case is this?” _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” header_font_size=”18px” body_text_align=”left” body_font_size=”16px” background_color=”#5e00ed” height=”125px” hover_transition_duration=”900ms” hover_transition_speed_curve=”ease-in-out” border_radii=”on|10px|10px|10px|10px” box_shadow_style=”preset3″ global_colors_info=”{}” height__hover_enabled=”on|hover” height__hover=”700px” background__hover_enabled=”on|hover” background_color__hover=”#9F6DEC” background_enable_color__hover=”on” content__hover_enabled=”on|hover” content__hover=”

      Issue

      The big clue is %22whether%22 because that shows a questions the Court will answer. But also the first person %22we%22 together with %22are concerned with%22 shows that this is the Court’s voice (i.e., not the voice of a court from a previous case). And the Court thinking about how to answer something that is not resolved. And that’s what an Issue is.

      “]

       

       

      [/et_pb_cta][/et_pb_column][/et_pb_row][et_pb_row column_structure=”1_2,1_2″ _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” global_colors_info=”{}”][et_pb_column type=”1_2″ _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” global_colors_info=”{}”][et_pb_button button_url=”#langclues” button_text=”Remind me of some language clues” button_alignment=”center” _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” button_text_size=”14px” global_colors_info=”{}”][/et_pb_button][/et_pb_column][et_pb_column type=”1_2″ _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” global_colors_info=”{}”][et_pb_button button_url=”#partcase” button_text=”Remind me of parts of the case ” button_alignment=”center” _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” button_text_size=”14px” global_colors_info=”{}”][/et_pb_button][/et_pb_column][/et_pb_row][et_pb_row _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” global_colors_info=”{}”][et_pb_column type=”4_4″ _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” global_colors_info=”{}”][et_pb_button button_url=”#Q21″ button_text=”Next sentence” button_alignment=”center” _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” global_colors_info=”{}”][/et_pb_button][/et_pb_column][/et_pb_row][/et_pb_section][et_pb_section fb_built=”1″ module_id=”Q21″ _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” background_color=”#F3F2F6″ min_height=”825px” hover_enabled=”0″ global_colors_info=”{}” sticky_enabled=”0″][et_pb_row _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” global_colors_info=”{}”][et_pb_column type=”4_4″ _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” global_colors_info=”{}”][et_pb_text _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” custom_padding=”||1px|||” global_colors_info=”{}”]

      [21] There are numerous authorities which hold that a particular advertisement in a newspaper or circular letter relating to a sale of articles may be construed by the court as constituting an offer, acceptance of which would complete a contract. J. E. Pinkham Lumber Co. v. C. W. Griffin & Co., 212 Ala. 341, 102 So. 689; Seymour v. Armstrong & Kassebaum, 62 Kan. 720, 64 P. 612; Payne v. Lautz Bros. & Co., City Ct., 166 N.Y.S. 844, affirmed, 168 N.Y.S. 369, affirmed, 185 App.Div. 904, 171 N.Y.S. 1094; Arnold v. Phillips, 1 Ohio Dec. Reprint 195, 3 West.Law J. 448; Oliver v. Henley, Tex.Civ.App., 21 S.W.2d 576; Annotation, 157 A.L.R. 744, 746.

      [/et_pb_text][/et_pb_column][/et_pb_row][et_pb_row column_structure=”1_2,1_2″ _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” global_colors_info=”{}”][et_pb_column type=”1_2″ _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” global_colors_info=”{}”][et_pb_cta title=” What language clues can you identify?” _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” header_font_size=”18px” body_text_align=”left” body_font_size=”14px” background_color=”#5e00ed” height=”125px” hover_transition_duration=”900ms” hover_transition_speed_curve=”ease-in-out” border_radii=”on|10px|10px|10px|10px” box_shadow_style=”preset3″ global_colors_info=”{}” height__hover_enabled=”on|hover” height__hover=”700px” background__hover_enabled=”on|hover” background_color__hover=”#9F6DEC” background_enable_color__hover=”on” content__hover_enabled=”on|hover” content__hover=”

      • 1. Present tense main verb
      • 4. Has a citation
      • 8. Has a verb like hold, find, believe, have determined, or have decided.
      • 11. Does not use a first-person term like %22we%22 or %22our%22 or %22this court.%22
      • 14. Used reported speech
      • Note: Seems to be always or generally true, not something that happened before or after the case began.

      “]

       

       

      [/et_pb_cta][/et_pb_column][et_pb_column type=”1_2″ _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” global_colors_info=”{}”][et_pb_cta title=”What part of the case is this?” _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” header_font_size=”18px” body_text_align=”left” body_font_size=”14px” background_color=”#5e00ed” height=”125px” hover_transition_duration=”900ms” hover_transition_speed_curve=”ease-in-out” border_radii=”on|10px|10px|10px|10px” box_shadow_style=”preset3″ global_colors_info=”{}” height__hover_enabled=”on|hover” height__hover=”700px” background__hover_enabled=”on|hover” background_color__hover=”#9F6DEC” background_enable_color__hover=”on” content__hover_enabled=”on|desktop” content__hover=”

      Rule or Reasoning

      This sentence could be categorized as either Rule or Reasoning.

      It uses present tense and describes a principle that is always or generally true, which makes it sound like a Rule. It has several citations. And it forms the basis for the rule that the Court ultimately relies on. It’s also Reasoning because it’s a step in the Court’s thinking that leads to its eventual holding. The Court is reviewing what previous courts ruled and using their ideas as building blocks in its analysis.

      “]

       

      Rule or Reasoning

      This sentence could be categorized as either Rule or Reasoning.

      It uses present tense and describes a principle that is always or generally true, which makes it sound like a Rule. It has several citations. And it forms the basis for the rule that the Court ultimately relies on. It’s also Reasoning because it’s a step in the Court’s thinking that leads to its eventual holding. The Court is reviewing what previous courts ruled and using their ideas as building blocks in its analysis.

      [/et_pb_cta][/et_pb_column][/et_pb_row][et_pb_row column_structure=”1_2,1_2″ _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” global_colors_info=”{}”][et_pb_column type=”1_2″ _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” global_colors_info=”{}”][et_pb_button button_url=”#langclues” button_text=”Remind me of some language clues” button_alignment=”center” _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” button_text_size=”14px” global_colors_info=”{}”][/et_pb_button][/et_pb_column][et_pb_column type=”1_2″ _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” global_colors_info=”{}”][et_pb_button button_url=”#partcase” button_text=”Remind me of parts of the case ” button_alignment=”center” _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” button_text_size=”14px” global_colors_info=”{}”][/et_pb_button][/et_pb_column][/et_pb_row][et_pb_row _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” global_colors_info=”{}”][et_pb_column type=”4_4″ _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” global_colors_info=”{}”][et_pb_button button_url=”#Q22″ button_text=”Next sentence” button_alignment=”center” _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” global_colors_info=”{}”][/et_pb_button][/et_pb_column][/et_pb_row][/et_pb_section][et_pb_section fb_built=”1″ module_id=”Q22″ _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” background_color=”#F3F2F6″ min_height=”825px” global_colors_info=”{}”][et_pb_row _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” global_colors_info=”{}”][et_pb_column type=”4_4″ _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” global_colors_info=”{}”][et_pb_text _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” custom_padding=”||1px|||” global_colors_info=”{}”]

      [22] The test of whether a binding obligation may originate in advertisements addressed to the general public is ‘whether the facts show that some performance was promised in positive terms in return for something requested.’ 1 Williston, Contracts (Rev. ed.) s 27.

      [/et_pb_text][/et_pb_column][/et_pb_row][et_pb_row column_structure=”1_2,1_2″ _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” global_colors_info=”{}”][et_pb_column type=”1_2″ _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” global_colors_info=”{}”][et_pb_cta title=” What language clues can you identify?” _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” header_font_size=”18px” body_text_align=”left” body_font_size=”16px” background_color=”#5e00ed” height=”125px” hover_transition_duration=”900ms” hover_transition_speed_curve=”ease-in-out” border_radii=”on|10px|10px|10px|10px” box_shadow_style=”preset3″ global_colors_info=”{}” height__hover_enabled=”on|hover” height__hover=”700px” background__hover_enabled=”on|hover” background_color__hover=”#9F6DEC” background_enable_color__hover=”on” content__hover_enabled=”on|hover” content__hover=”

      • 1. Present tense main verb
      • 4. Has a citation (or refers to a source of authority)
      • 9. Has the word %22issue%22 or %22whether%22 or %22question%22 or other type of question word in it.
      • 11. Does not use a first-person term like %22we%22 or %22our%22 or %22this court.%22
      • Seems to be always or generally true – – did not %22happen%22 before or after the case began.
      • Note: Seems to be always or generally true, not something that happened before or after the case began.

      “]

      [/et_pb_cta][/et_pb_column][et_pb_column type=”1_2″ _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” global_colors_info=”{}”][et_pb_cta title=”What part of the case is this?” _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” header_font_size=”18px” body_text_align=”left” body_font_size=”16px” background_color=”#5e00ed” height=”125px” hover_transition_duration=”900ms” hover_transition_speed_curve=”ease-in-out” border_radii=”on|10px|10px|10px|10px” box_shadow_style=”preset3″ global_colors_info=”{}” height__hover_enabled=”on|hover” height__hover=”700px” background__hover_enabled=”on|hover” background_color__hover=”#9F6DEC” background_enable_color__hover=”on” content__hover_enabled=”on|hover” content__hover=”

      Rule

      The key word in this sentence is %22test.%22 A test is often a synonym for a rule in a court opinion.

      Additionally, it uses present tense, has a citation, and describes something that seems to be always or generally true. If you included this sentence in the Reasoning section of your case brief, that would not bad because the Court uses thus rule in its reasoning.

      “]

       

       

      [/et_pb_cta][/et_pb_column][/et_pb_row][et_pb_row column_structure=”1_2,1_2″ _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” global_colors_info=”{}”][et_pb_column type=”1_2″ _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” global_colors_info=”{}”][et_pb_button button_url=”#langclues” button_text=”Remind me of some language clues” button_alignment=”center” _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” button_text_size=”14px” global_colors_info=”{}”][/et_pb_button][/et_pb_column][et_pb_column type=”1_2″ _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” global_colors_info=”{}”][et_pb_button button_url=”#partcase” button_text=”Remind me of parts of the case ” _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” button_text_size=”14px” global_colors_info=”{}”][/et_pb_button][/et_pb_column][/et_pb_row][et_pb_row _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” global_colors_info=”{}”][et_pb_column type=”4_4″ _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” global_colors_info=”{}”][et_pb_button button_url=”#Q23″ button_text=”Next sentence” button_alignment=”center” _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” global_colors_info=”{}”][/et_pb_button][/et_pb_column][/et_pb_row][/et_pb_section][et_pb_section fb_built=”1″ module_id=”Q23″ _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” background_color=”#F3F2F6″ min_height=”825px” global_colors_info=”{}”][et_pb_row _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” global_colors_info=”{}”][et_pb_column type=”4_4″ _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” global_colors_info=”{}”][et_pb_text _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” custom_padding=”||1px|||” global_colors_info=”{}”]

      [23] The authorities above cited emphasize that, where the offer is clear, definite, and explicit, and leaves nothing open for negotiation, it constitutes an offer, acceptance of which will complete the contract.

      [/et_pb_text][/et_pb_column][/et_pb_row][et_pb_row column_structure=”1_2,1_2″ _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” global_colors_info=”{}”][et_pb_column type=”1_2″ _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” global_colors_info=”{}”][et_pb_cta title=” What language clues can you identify?” _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” header_font_size=”18px” body_text_align=”left” body_font_size=”16px” background_color=”#5e00ed” height=”250px” hover_transition_duration=”900ms” hover_transition_speed_curve=”ease-in-out” border_radii=”on|10px|10px|10px|10px” box_shadow_style=”preset3″ global_colors_info=”{}” height__hover_enabled=”on|hover” height__hover=”700px” background__hover_enabled=”on|hover” background_color__hover=”#9F6DEC” background_enable_color__hover=”on” content__hover_enabled=”on|hover” content__hover=”

      • 1. Present tense main verb
      • 4. Has a citation (or refers to a source of authority)
      • 11. Does not use a first-person term like %22we%22 or %22our%22 or %22this court.%22
      • Seems to be always or generally true – – did not %22happen%22 before or after the case began.
      • 14. Uses reported speech

      “]

       

       

      [/et_pb_cta][/et_pb_column][et_pb_column type=”1_2″ _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” global_colors_info=”{}”][et_pb_cta title=”What part of the case is this?” _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” header_font_size=”18px” body_text_align=”left” body_font_size=”16px” background_color=”#5e00ed” height=”250px” hover_transition_duration=”900ms” hover_transition_speed_curve=”ease-in-out” border_radii=”on|10px|10px|10px|10px” box_shadow_style=”preset3″ global_colors_info=”{}” height__hover_enabled=”on|hover” height__hover=”700px” background__hover_enabled=”on|hover” background_color__hover=”#9F6DEC” background_enable_color__hover=”on” content__hover_enabled=”on|hover” content__hover=”

      Rule

      This has a present tense main verb and describes something that seems to be always or generally true. Additionally, it does not have a citation, but the sentence says %22The authorities above cited….%22 which means the Court is connecting this sentence to the cases cited at the end of sentence %9121%93. The key words from this sentence are repeated later in sentence %9126%93 when the Court reaches its conclusion. This tells us that this is the Rule that the Court is relying on. In other words, this is really *the* Rule for this case. If a professor ever asks you for the Rule in this case, this is what you would tell them.

      “][/et_pb_cta][/et_pb_column][/et_pb_row][et_pb_row column_structure=”1_2,1_2″ _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” global_colors_info=”{}”][et_pb_column type=”1_2″ _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” global_colors_info=”{}”][et_pb_button button_url=”#langclues” button_text=”Remind me of some language clues” button_alignment=”center” _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” button_text_size=”14px” global_colors_info=”{}”][/et_pb_button][/et_pb_column][et_pb_column type=”1_2″ _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” global_colors_info=”{}”][et_pb_button button_url=”#partcase” button_text=”Remind me of parts of the case ” button_alignment=”center” _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” button_text_size=”14px” global_colors_info=”{}”][/et_pb_button][/et_pb_column][/et_pb_row][et_pb_row _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” global_colors_info=”{}”][et_pb_column type=”4_4″ _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” global_colors_info=”{}”][et_pb_button button_url=”#Q25″ button_text=”Next sentence” button_alignment=”center” _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” global_colors_info=”{}”][/et_pb_button][/et_pb_column][/et_pb_row][/et_pb_section][et_pb_section fb_built=”1″ module_id=”Q17″ _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” background_color=”#F3F2F6″ min_height=”825px” global_colors_info=”{}”][et_pb_row _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” global_colors_info=”{}”][et_pb_column type=”4_4″ _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” global_colors_info=”{}”][et_pb_text _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” custom_padding=”||1px|||” global_colors_info=”{}”]

      [25] Whether in any individual instance a newspaper advertisement is an offer rather than an invitation to make an offer depends on the legal intention of the parties and the surrounding circumstances. Annotation, 157 A.L.R. 744, 751; 77 C.J.S., Sales, s 25b; 17 C.J.S., Contracts, s 389.

      [/et_pb_text][/et_pb_column][/et_pb_row][et_pb_row column_structure=”1_2,1_2″ _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” global_colors_info=”{}”][et_pb_column type=”1_2″ _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” global_colors_info=”{}”][et_pb_cta title=” What language clues can you identify?” _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” header_font_size=”18px” body_text_align=”left” body_font_size=”16px” background_color=”#5e00ed” height=”250px” hover_transition_duration=”900ms” hover_transition_speed_curve=”ease-in-out” border_radii=”on|10px|10px|10px|10px” box_shadow_style=”preset3″ global_colors_info=”{}” height__hover_enabled=”on|hover” height__hover=”700px” background__hover_enabled=”on|hover” background_color__hover=”#9F6DEC” background_enable_color__hover=”on” content__hover_enabled=”on|hover” content__hover=”

      • 1. Present tense main verb
      • 4. Has a citation (or refers to a source of authority)
      • 9. Has the word %22issue%22 or %22whether%22 or %22question%22 or other type of question word in it.
      • 11. Does not use a first-person term like %22we%22 or %22our%22 or %22this court.%22
      • Seems to be always or generally true – – did not %22happen%22 before or after the case began.
      • 14. Uses reported speech

      “]

       

       

      [/et_pb_cta][/et_pb_column][et_pb_column type=”1_2″ _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” global_colors_info=”{}”][et_pb_cta title=”What part of the case is this?” _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” header_font_size=”18px” body_text_align=”left” body_font_size=”16px” background_color=”#5e00ed” height=”250px” hover_transition_duration=”900ms” hover_transition_speed_curve=”ease-in-out” border_radii=”on|10px|10px|10px|10px” box_shadow_style=”preset3″ global_colors_info=”{}” height__hover_enabled=”on|hover” height__hover=”700px” background__hover_enabled=”on|hover” background_color__hover=”#9F6DEC” background_enable_color__hover=”on” content__hover_enabled=”on|hover” content__hover=”

      Rule or Reasoning

      This sentence starts with %22Whether%22 but it is not an Issue. It’s a Rule, or it could be considered part of the Reasoning if you want because the Court uses this Rule when analyzing the facts of our case.

      It has a citation. And statements of the issue don’t generally have citations. But rules do!

      “][/et_pb_cta][/et_pb_column][/et_pb_row][et_pb_row column_structure=”1_2,1_2″ _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” global_colors_info=”{}”][et_pb_column type=”1_2″ _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” global_colors_info=”{}”][et_pb_button button_url=”#langclues” button_text=”Remind me of some language clues” button_alignment=”center” _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” button_text_size=”14px” global_colors_info=”{}”][/et_pb_button][/et_pb_column][et_pb_column type=”1_2″ _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” global_colors_info=”{}”][et_pb_button button_url=”#partcase” button_text=”Remind me of parts of the case ” button_alignment=”center” _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” button_text_size=”14px” global_colors_info=”{}”][/et_pb_button][/et_pb_column][/et_pb_row][et_pb_row _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” global_colors_info=”{}”][et_pb_column type=”4_4″ _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” global_colors_info=”{}”][et_pb_button button_url=”#Q26″ button_text=”Next sentence” button_alignment=”center” _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” global_colors_info=”{}”][/et_pb_button][/et_pb_column][/et_pb_row][/et_pb_section][et_pb_section fb_built=”1″ module_id=”Q26″ _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” background_color=”#F3F2F6″ min_height=”825px” global_colors_info=”{}”][et_pb_row _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” global_colors_info=”{}”][et_pb_column type=”4_4″ _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” global_colors_info=”{}”][et_pb_text _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” custom_padding=”||1px|||” global_colors_info=”{}”]

      [26] We are of the view on the facts before us that the offer by the defendant of the sale of the Lapin fur was clear, definite, and explicit, and left nothing open for negotiation.

      [/et_pb_text][/et_pb_column][/et_pb_row][et_pb_row column_structure=”1_2,1_2″ _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” global_colors_info=”{}”][et_pb_column type=”1_2″ _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” global_colors_info=”{}”][et_pb_cta title=” What language clues can you identify?” _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” header_font_size=”18px” body_text_align=”left” body_font_size=”16px” background_color=”#5e00ed” height=”250px” hover_transition_duration=”900ms” hover_transition_speed_curve=”ease-in-out” border_radii=”on|10px|10px|10px|10px” box_shadow_style=”preset3″ global_colors_info=”{}” height__hover_enabled=”on|hover” height__hover=”700px” background__hover_enabled=”on|hover” background_color__hover=”#9F6DEC” background_enable_color__hover=”on” content__hover_enabled=”on|hover” content__hover=”

      • 1. Present tense main verb
      • 5. Does not have a citation
      • 8. Has a verb like hold, find, believe, have determined, or have decided.
      • 10. Uses a first-person term like %22we%22 or %22our%22 or %22this court.%22

      “]

       

       

      [/et_pb_cta][/et_pb_column][et_pb_column type=”1_2″ _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” global_colors_info=”{}”][et_pb_cta title=”What part of the case is this?” _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” header_font_size=”18px” body_text_align=”left” body_font_size=”16px” background_color=”#5e00ed” height=”250px” hover_transition_duration=”900ms” hover_transition_speed_curve=”ease-in-out” border_radii=”on|10px|10px|10px|10px” box_shadow_style=”preset3″ global_colors_info=”{}” height__hover_enabled=”on|hover” height__hover=”700px” background__hover_enabled=”on|hover” background_color__hover=”#9F6DEC” background_enable_color__hover=”on” content__hover_enabled=”on|hover” content__hover=”

      Holding

      The key phrase that tells you it’s a holding is %22We are of the view…%22 It has first-person (%22We%22), present tense main verb (%22are%22), and %22are of the view%22 means %22believe%22 or %22think.%22 So this is the Court stating its own opinion. Additionally, there are no citations. So we know that this is the Court’s own idea and opinion, and not the opinion or idea of another person or court.

      Finally, it answers the question in the Issue stated in sentence 20 regarding whether the advertisement constituted an offer. It doesn’t say %22It was an offer.%22 But it states its belief that the key elements existed (%22clear, definite, and explicit and left nothing open for negotiation%22) which are necessary for an advertisement to be an offer.

      “][/et_pb_cta][/et_pb_column][/et_pb_row][et_pb_row column_structure=”1_2,1_2″ _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” global_colors_info=”{}”][et_pb_column type=”1_2″ _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” global_colors_info=”{}”][et_pb_button button_url=”#langclues” button_text=”Remind me of some language clues” button_alignment=”center” _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” button_text_size=”14px” global_colors_info=”{}”][/et_pb_button][/et_pb_column][et_pb_column type=”1_2″ _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” global_colors_info=”{}”][et_pb_button button_url=”#partcase” button_text=”Remind me of parts of the case ” button_alignment=”center” _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” button_text_size=”14px” global_colors_info=”{}”][/et_pb_button][/et_pb_column][/et_pb_row][et_pb_row _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” global_colors_info=”{}”][et_pb_column type=”4_4″ _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” global_colors_info=”{}”][et_pb_button button_url=”#Q27″ button_text=”Next sentence” button_alignment=”center” _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” global_colors_info=”{}”][/et_pb_button][/et_pb_column][/et_pb_row][/et_pb_section][et_pb_section fb_built=”1″ module_id=”Q27″ _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” background_color=”#F3F2F6″ min_height=”825px” global_colors_info=”{}”][et_pb_row _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” global_colors_info=”{}”][et_pb_column type=”4_4″ _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” global_colors_info=”{}”][et_pb_text _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” custom_padding=”||1px|||” global_colors_info=”{}”]

      [27] The plaintiff having successfully managed to be the first one to appear at the seller’s place of business to be served, as requested by the advertisement, and having offered the stated purchase price of the article, he was entitled to performance on the part of the defendant.

      [/et_pb_text][/et_pb_column][/et_pb_row][et_pb_row column_structure=”1_2,1_2″ _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” global_colors_info=”{}”][et_pb_column type=”1_2″ _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” global_colors_info=”{}”][et_pb_cta title=” What language clues can you identify?” _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” header_font_size=”18px” body_text_align=”left” body_font_size=”16px” background_color=”#5e00ed” height=”250px” hover_transition_duration=”900ms” hover_transition_speed_curve=”ease-in-out” border_radii=”on|10px|10px|10px|10px” box_shadow_style=”preset3″ global_colors_info=”{}” height__hover_enabled=”on|hover” height__hover=”700px” background__hover_enabled=”on|hover” background_color__hover=”#9F6DEC” background_enable_color__hover=”on” content__hover_enabled=”on|hover” content__hover=”

      • 2. Past tense main verb
      • 5. Does not have a citation
      • 8. Has a verb like hold, find, believe, have determined, or have decided.
      • 10. Although it does not use a first-person term like %22we%22 or %22our%22 or %22this court%22 the sentence immediately follows a sentence that begins with, %22We are of the view%22.

      “]

       

       

      [/et_pb_cta][/et_pb_column][et_pb_column type=”1_2″ _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” global_colors_info=”{}”][et_pb_cta title=”What part of the case is this?” _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” header_font_size=”18px” body_text_align=”left” body_font_size=”16px” background_color=”#5e00ed” height=”250px” hover_transition_duration=”900ms” hover_transition_speed_curve=”ease-in-out” border_radii=”on|10px|10px|10px|10px” box_shadow_style=”preset3″ global_colors_info=”{}” height__hover_enabled=”on|hover” height__hover=”700px” background__hover_enabled=”on|hover” background_color__hover=”#9F6DEC” background_enable_color__hover=”on” content__hover_enabled=”on|hover” content__hover=”

      Holding and Reasoning

      This one is interesting. It’s the Court’s voice giving its own opinion (%22….he was entitled to performance….%22) in connection with certain facts. It reaches a conclusion. And there is no citation. So it sort of sounds like the Holding. Or part of the Holding. At the same time, it also explains its conclusion as well, giving the reasons why the plaintiff should be entitled to performance. So it also looks a little bit like Reasoning.

      And that’s OK, because the Holding and the Reasoning often overlap.

      “][/et_pb_cta][/et_pb_column][/et_pb_row][et_pb_row column_structure=”1_2,1_2″ _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” global_colors_info=”{}”][et_pb_column type=”1_2″ _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” global_colors_info=”{}”][et_pb_button button_url=”#langclues” button_text=”Remind me of some language clues” button_alignment=”center” _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” button_text_size=”14px” global_colors_info=”{}”][/et_pb_button][/et_pb_column][et_pb_column type=”1_2″ _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” global_colors_info=”{}”][et_pb_button button_url=”#partcase” button_text=”Remind me of parts of the case ” button_alignment=”center” _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” button_text_size=”14px” global_colors_info=”{}”][/et_pb_button][/et_pb_column][/et_pb_row][et_pb_row _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” global_colors_info=”{}”][et_pb_column type=”4_4″ _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” global_colors_info=”{}”][et_pb_button button_url=”#Q28″ button_text=”Next sentence” button_alignment=”center” _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” global_colors_info=”{}”][/et_pb_button][/et_pb_column][/et_pb_row][/et_pb_section][et_pb_section fb_built=”1″ module_id=”Q28″ _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” background_color=”#F3F2F6″ min_height=”825px” global_colors_info=”{}”][et_pb_row _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” global_colors_info=”{}”][et_pb_column type=”4_4″ _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” global_colors_info=”{}”][et_pb_text _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” custom_padding=”||1px|||” global_colors_info=”{}”]

      [28] We think the trial court was correct in holding that there was in the conduct of the parties a sufficient mutuality of obligation to constitute a contract of sale.

      [/et_pb_text][/et_pb_column][/et_pb_row][et_pb_row column_structure=”1_2,1_2″ _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” global_colors_info=”{}”][et_pb_column type=”1_2″ _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” global_colors_info=”{}”][et_pb_cta title=” What language clues can you identify?” _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” header_font_size=”18px” body_text_align=”left” body_font_size=”16px” background_color=”#5e00ed” height=”250px” hover_transition_duration=”900ms” hover_transition_speed_curve=”ease-in-out” border_radii=”on|10px|10px|10px|10px” box_shadow_style=”preset3″ global_colors_info=”{}” height__hover_enabled=”on|hover” height__hover=”700px” background__hover_enabled=”on|hover” background_color__hover=”#9F6DEC” background_enable_color__hover=”on” content__hover_enabled=”on|hover” content__hover=”

      • 1. Present tense main verb
      • 5. Does not have a citation
      • 7. Tells you whether the court agreed or disagreed with the lower court
      • 8. Has a verb like hold, find, believe, have determined, or have decided.
      • 10. Using a first-person term like %22we%22 or %22our%22 or %22this court%22
      • 13. Happened AFTER the lawsuit or case was started in the court
      • 14. Uses reported speech

      “]

       

       

      [/et_pb_cta][/et_pb_column][et_pb_column type=”1_2″ _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” global_colors_info=”{}”][et_pb_cta title=”What part of the case is this?” _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” header_font_size=”18px” body_text_align=”left” body_font_size=”16px” background_color=”#5e00ed” height=”250px” hover_transition_duration=”900ms” hover_transition_speed_curve=”ease-in-out” border_radii=”on|10px|10px|10px|10px” box_shadow_style=”preset3″ global_colors_info=”{}” height__hover_enabled=”on|hover” height__hover=”700px” background__hover_enabled=”on|hover” background_color__hover=”#9F6DEC” background_enable_color__hover=”on” content__hover_enabled=”on|hover” content__hover=”

      Holding

      This sentence has all the typical elements of a holding: First person, present tense, an opinion word (%22think%22), and no citation, so we know it’s the Court’s opinion.

      Additionally, it seems to answer the questions in the Issue–whether the advertisement constituted an offer, and whether the plaintiff’s actions constituted acceptance–when it talks about %22sufficient mutuality of obligation to constitute a contract of sale.%22

      “][/et_pb_cta][/et_pb_column][/et_pb_row][et_pb_row column_structure=”1_2,1_2″ _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” global_colors_info=”{}”][et_pb_column type=”1_2″ _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” global_colors_info=”{}”][et_pb_button button_url=”#langclues” button_text=”Remind me of some language clues” button_alignment=”center” _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” button_text_size=”14px” global_colors_info=”{}”][/et_pb_button][/et_pb_column][et_pb_column type=”1_2″ _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” global_colors_info=”{}”][et_pb_button button_url=”#partcase” button_text=”Remind me of parts of the case ” button_alignment=”center” _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” button_text_size=”14px” global_colors_info=”{}”][/et_pb_button][/et_pb_column][/et_pb_row][et_pb_row _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” global_colors_info=”{}”][et_pb_column type=”4_4″ _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” global_colors_info=”{}”][et_pb_button button_url=”#Q32″ button_text=”Next sentence” button_alignment=”center” _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” global_colors_info=”{}”][/et_pb_button][/et_pb_column][/et_pb_row][/et_pb_section][et_pb_section fb_built=”1″ module_id=”Q32″ _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” background_color=”#F3F2F6″ min_height=”825px” global_colors_info=”{}”][et_pb_row _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” global_colors_info=”{}”][et_pb_column type=”4_4″ _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” global_colors_info=”{}”][et_pb_text _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” custom_padding=”||14px|||” global_colors_info=”{}”]

      [32] Affirmed.

      [/et_pb_text][/et_pb_column][/et_pb_row][et_pb_row column_structure=”1_2,1_2″ _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” global_colors_info=”{}”][et_pb_column type=”1_2″ _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” global_colors_info=”{}”][et_pb_cta title=” What language clues can you identify?” _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” header_font_size=”18px” body_text_align=”left” body_font_size=”16px” background_color=”#5e00ed” height=”250px” hover_transition_duration=”900ms” hover_transition_speed_curve=”ease-in-out” border_radii=”on|10px|10px|10px|10px” box_shadow_style=”preset3″ global_colors_info=”{}” height__hover_enabled=”on|hover” height__hover=”700px” background__hover_enabled=”on|hover” background_color__hover=”#9F6DEC” background_enable_color__hover=”on” content__hover_enabled=”on|hover” content__hover=”

      One word. Italics. %22Affirmed.%22

      “]

       

       

      [/et_pb_cta][/et_pb_column][et_pb_column type=”1_2″ _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” global_colors_info=”{}”][et_pb_cta title=”What part of the case is this?” _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” header_font_size=”18px” body_text_align=”left” body_font_size=”16px” background_color=”#5e00ed” height=”250px” hover_transition_duration=”900ms” hover_transition_speed_curve=”ease-in-out” border_radii=”on|10px|10px|10px|10px” box_shadow_style=”preset3″ global_colors_info=”{}” height__hover_enabled=”on|hover” height__hover=”700px” background__hover_enabled=”on|hover” background_color__hover=”#9F6DEC” background_enable_color__hover=”on” content__hover_enabled=”on|hover” content__hover=”

      Disposition

      “][/et_pb_cta][/et_pb_column][/et_pb_row][et_pb_row column_structure=”1_2,1_2″ _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” global_colors_info=”{}”][et_pb_column type=”1_2″ _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” global_colors_info=”{}”][et_pb_button button_url=”#langclues” button_text=”Remind me of some language clues” button_alignment=”center” _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” button_text_size=”14px” global_colors_info=”{}”][/et_pb_button][/et_pb_column][et_pb_column type=”1_2″ _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” global_colors_info=”{}”][et_pb_button button_url=”#partcase” button_text=”Remind me of parts of the case ” button_alignment=”center” _builder_version=”4.18.0″ _module_preset=”default” button_text_size=”14px” global_colors_info=”{}”][/et_pb_button][/et_pb_column][/et_pb_row][/et_pb_section][et_pb_section fb_built=”1″ _builder_version=”4.16″ _module_preset=”default” custom_padding=”0px|||||” global_colors_info=”{}”][et_pb_row _builder_version=”4.17.3″ _module_preset=”default” global_colors_info=”{}”][et_pb_column type=”4_4″ _builder_version=”4.17.3″ _module_preset=”default” global_colors_info=”{}”][/et_pb_column][/et_pb_row][/et_pb_section]